|Researchers have found that a vaccine, targeting tumors that produce a certain protein and receptor responsible for communication between cells and the body's immune system, could initiate the immune response to fight cancer.|
Researchers at the Cincinnati Cancer Center (CCC) and UC Cancer Institute have found that a vaccine, targeting tumors that produce a certain protein and receptor responsible for communication between cells and the body’s immune system, could initiate the immune response to fight cancer.
The findings, published in the journal Gene Therapy, build on previously reported research and could lead to new treatments for cancer.
Principal Investigator John Morris, MD, clinical co-leader of the Molecular Therapeutics and Diagnosis Program for the CCC, co-leader of the UC Cancer Institute's Comprehensive Lung Cancer Program, professor in the division of hematology oncology at the UC College of Medicine and UC Health medical oncologist, says a number of antitumor vaccines have shown promise for causing immune responses against tumor antigens to improve patient outcomes.
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Researchers used IL-15 to develop a whole tumor cell vaccine to target breast (TS/A) and prostate (TRAMP-C2) cancer cells in animal models; results showed that tumor cells stopped growing after the vaccine was introduced and that beneficial effects were enhanced further when IL-15Rá was co-produced by the vaccine cells.
Morris says vaccination with modified tumor cells producing IL-15 and IL-15Rá slowed tumor growth and led to increased survival for animal models. Furthermore, the cells that control the immune responses (CD8+ T-cells and NK cells) were elevated in these tumors, showing evidence of a true immune response.
"IL-15 is a powerful pro-inflammatory protein that can enhance immune responses,” he says. "Our findings suggest that genetically altering tumor cells to produce IL-15 and IL-15Rá can cause and enhance immune responses to tumor antigens found in these tumor cells and can be used as a vaccine to target these antigens.
"Additionally, this provides evidence needed to begin investigating a vaccine in human cancer clinical trials to determine whether genetically modified tumor cells producing IL-15 and IL-15Rá may induce anti-cancer responses.”
SOURCE University of Cincinnati
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