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November 21, 2012

Transplanted Neurons Derived From Stem Cells Drive Brain Activity In Laboratory Setting



stem cell neurons
 
Stem Cell Neuroscience
Sanford-Burnham researchers convince transplanted stem cell-derived neurons to direct cognitive function—getting us a step closer to using these cells to treat Alzheimer’s disease and other neurodegenerative conditions.
Researchers at Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute have found a way to stimulate stem cell-derived neurons to direct cognitive function after transplantation to an existing neural network. The study was published November 7 in the Journal of Neuroscience.

“We showed for the first time that embryonic stem cells that we’ve programmed to become neurons can integrate into existing brain circuits and fire patterns of electrical activity that are critical for consciousness and neural network activity,” said Stuart A. Lipton, M.D., Ph.D., senior author of the study. Lipton is director of Sanford-Burnham’s Del E. Webb Neuroscience, Aging, and Stem Cell Research Center and a clinical neurologist.

The trick turned out to be light. Lipton and his team—including Juan Piña-Crespo, Ph.D., D.V.M., Maria Talantova, M.D., Ph.D., and other colleagues at Sanford-Burnham and Stanford University—transplanted human stem cell-derived neurons into a rodent hippocampus, the brain’s information-processing center.

They then specifically activated the transplanted neurons with optogenetic stimulation, a relatively new technique that combines light and genetics to precisely control cellular behavior in living tissues or animals.

To determine if the newly transplanted, light-stimulated human neurons were actually working, Lipton and his team measured high-frequency oscillations in existing neurons at a distance from the transplanted ones. They found that the transplanted neurons triggered the existing neurons to fire high-frequency oscillations. Faster neuronal oscillations are usually better—they’re associated with enhanced performance in sensory-motor and cognitive tasks.

The transplanted human neurons not only conducted electrical impulses, they also roused neighboring neuronal networks into firing—at roughly the same rate they would in a normal, functioning hippocampus.

The therapeutic outlook for this technology looks promising. “Based on these results, we might be able to restore brain activity—and thus restore motor and cognitive function—by transplanting easily manipulated neuronal cells derived from embryonic stem cells,” Lipton said.

It is not clear yet if the same techniques will work with induded pluriopotent stem cells (IPS), or if the possibility for extending intelligence via implantation into healthy brains will be a possibility.

SOURCE  Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute

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